|Year : 2008 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 23-25
Changing trends of sexually transmitted diseases at Rohtak
VK Jain, Surabhi Dayal, Kamal Aggarwal, Sarika Jain
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Pt B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, India
C/o Dr. V. K. Jain, 16/6 J, Medical Campus, Rohtak -124 001, Haryana
| Abstract|| |
The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) at Rohtak Medical College, based on retrospective data for the period from January 2001 to December 2006, was compared with the findings of an earlier study done at the same place and with other studies available in the literature. This study included a total of 1542 patients with STDs. The male: female ratio was 5.17:1. Most of the patients were in the third decade of their lives. Herpes genitalis was the most common STD (31.26%), followed by condyloma acuminata (27.30%), syphilis (16.67%), gonorrhea (12.06%), and other diseases.
Keywords: Sexually transmitted diseases, Rohtak, trends
|How to cite this article:|
Jain V K, Dayal S, Aggarwal K, Jain S. Changing trends of sexually transmitted diseases at Rohtak. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2008;29:23-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Jain V K, Dayal S, Aggarwal K, Jain S. Changing trends of sexually transmitted diseases at Rohtak. Indian J Sex Transm Dis [serial online] 2008 [cited 2015 Mar 4];29:23-5. Available from: http://www.ijstd.org/text.asp?2008/29/1/23/42710
| Introduction|| |
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are diseases with tremendous health and economic consequences. The disease prevalence is estimated to be 6% in India.  The emergence of HIV as a global pandemic has focused greater attention on the control of these diseases as they play an important role in the acquisition and transmission of HIV. A proper knowledge of the pattern of STDs in different geographical regions is necessary for evolving proper control measures.
The present study was conducted to find out the pattern of STDs in Rohtak and to identify any change in the trend of STDs and in the epidemiological factors and behavior of individual diseases.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Case records of the patients attending the STD clinic of Medical College, Rohtak, from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006, were analyzed.
Diagnosis was based on detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations. The VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) test was done in all cases. In cases of genital ulcer, dark ground illumination (DGI), smear for multinucleated giant cells, Gram's stain, and Giemsa staining of tissue smears were done. In cases presenting with urethral discharge, a smear from the discharge was made and stained with Gram's stain. The findings were recorded in the STD case file.
| Observations|| |
During the study period of 6 years, there were 1542 new clinic attendees. The majority of the patients (53.44%) were in the third decade of their life (21-30 years) [Table 1]; this was true for both males and females. The youngest patient was a 1½-year-old male child and the oldest was a 79-year-old male. Males outnumbered females, with 1292 males (83.79%) and 250 females (16.21%), forming a male: female ratio of 5.17:1 [Table 1]. Most (93.2%) of the female patients were married, whereas only 50% of the male patients were married. Seven of the male patients were divorcιs. Agricultural workers (17.96%), students (15.57%), and laborers (13.55%) constituted the majority of the patients. Most of the female patients were housewives (196 out of 250). Of the various categories of diseases, herpes genitalis was the most common, constituting 31.26% of the cases; this was followed by condyloma acuminata (27.30%). LGV and donovanosis were found to be rare [Table 2]. Regarding sexual behavior, 43.88% males gave history of premarital sexual contact, while 25% gave history of extramarital sexual contact. Fifty-four of the male patients were found to be homosexuals. Most of the female patients (90.4%) denied any history of premarital or extramarital contact. Sentinel surveillance showed an HIV positivity rate of 1.65%.
| Discussion|| |
A number of epidemiological studies have been done on the pattern and changing trends of STDs. ,,,,,, In our study, the majority (53.44%) of the patients were in the age-group of 21-30 years, as has been seen in other studies also; ,,,,,, this clustering of patients in the above age-group is mainly due to the high sexual activity at this age. Most of the patients were males which is also in agreement with other studies. ,,,,,, The attendance of female patients was less, which might be due to social and cultural restrictions, the asymptomatic nature of the disease in females, and the fact that female patients prefer to attend the gynecology department for treatment of such problems.
The prevalence of STDs was found to be equal in married and unmarried male subjects, which is in contrast to the findings of other studies where married males were more affected. ,, Of the affected males, 43.88% gave history of premarital sexual contact. Married females outnumbered unmarried female patients, which is consistent with other studies. ,,,,
In our present study, herpes genitalis was the commonest STD, whereas an earlier study done at same place had revealed syphilis to be the most common STD.  There was a nearly 2-fold rise (from 16.92% to 31.26%) in the incidence of herpes genitalis compared with the previous study.  The incidence of herpes genitalis was almost equal to that seen at Ahmedabad (32.37%)  but much higher than that found at Davangere (13.04%)  and Kottayam (24.40%). 
The second most common STD was condyloma acuminata. Its incidence was 27.30%, which was much higher than the incidence seen in the earlier study (19.35%)  and in studies done in the recent past at Ahmedabad (10.09%),  Davangere (5.92%),  and Kottayam (17.5%). 
Syphilis was found to have an incidence of 16.67%-much lower than seen in the previous study (24.00%).  This incidence rate was comparable with the rate found in Ahmedabad (14.29%)  and Davangere (15.95%)  but much lower than that found in Kottayam (42.1%). 
Next in the order of frequency was AGU, with an incidence of 12.06%. The incidence of AGU was higher than that of NGU (5.06%), which is consistent with the previous study in the same area (16.21%)  and also with the studies done at Ahmedabad (10.88%)  and Davangere (10.14%). 
The incidence of chancroid was found to have declined from 10.97% in the previous study  to 4.74% in the present study. Other STDs seen, in decreasing order of frequency, were mixed infections, LGV, and donovanosis.
From the above discussion, it is evident that viral STDs are on a rise and STDs with a bacterial etiology are showing a downward trend. This changing trend is probably because of the widespread use of antibacterials and self-medication, as also the syndromic approach to treatment used by general physicians and primary health centers. Similar studies at different levels are very essential to detect the changing trends as they assist in the formulation of the national STD and AIDS control programme.
| References|| |
|1.||National Guidelines on the Prevention, Management and control of reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections. Aug 2007. p.1. |
|2.||Aggarwal K, Jain VK, Brahma D. Trends of STDs at Rohtak. Indian J Sex Trans Dis 2002;23:19-21. |
|3.||Gupta SK, Jain VK, Aggarwal K. Trends of sexually transmitted diseases at Rohtak. Indian J Sex Trans Dis 1997;18:2-3. |
|4.||Kavina BK, Billimoria FE, Rao MV. The pattern of STDs and HIV seropositivity in young adult attending STD clinic of Civil Hospital Ahmedabad. Indian J Sex Trans Dis 2005;26:60-3. |
|5.||Murugesh SB, Sugareddy, Raghunath S. Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases at Davangere. Indian J Sex Trans Dis 2004;25:9-12. |
|6.||Narayanan B. A retrospective study of the pattern of sexually transmitted diseases during a ten-year period. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2005;71:333-7. |
|7.||Chandragupta TS, Badri SR, Murty SV, Swarnakumari G, Prakash B. Changing trends of sexually transmitted diseases at Kakinda. Indian J Sex Trans Dis 2007;28:6-9. |
|8.||Chatterjee M, Ramadasan P. Profile of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in and around Jabalpur. Indian J Sex Trans Dis 2004;25:13-7. |
[Table 1], [Table 2]