Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 71-78

Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections


Department of Skin VD, Government Medical College & SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Y S Marfatia
Professor & Head, Department of Skin VD, Government Medical College & SSG Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7184.62761

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Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus) are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal period may help in preventing their complications. Twenty five percent of women with a history of genital herpes have an outbreak at some point during the last month of pregnancy. Acyclovir is the accepted efficacious and safe therapy for HSV in pregnancy. Globally, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Neonatal transmission can occur in the absence of clinically evident lesions. HPV 6 or 11 may lead to Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP). TCA, liquid nitrogen, laser ablation or electrocautery can be used to treat external genital HPV lesions at any time during pregnancy. Cesarean section is recommended only if the lesions are obstructing the birth canal. Mother to child transmission (MTCT) in HIV accounts for 15-30% during pregnancy and delivery, and a further 5-20% of transmission occurs through breastfeeding. HBV infection during pregnancy does not alter the natural course of the disease. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, vertical transmission is approximately 90%. Pregnancy is not a contraindication for HBV vaccination. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common intrauterine infection. Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID) is the most severe form of congenital CMV infection. Treatment is supportive.


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