Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-16

Diagnostic accuracy of self-reported symptomatic assessment versus per speculum/per vaginal examination for the diagnosis of vaginal/cervical discharge and lower abdominal pain syndromes among female sex workers

1 Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, GMERS Medical College, Valsad, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, GMERS Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
4 USF Health Program for Comprative Effectiveness Research, Morsani Medical College, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA
5 Department of Pediatrics, Morsani Medical College, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA

Correspondence Address:
Jayendrakumar K Kosambiya
Department of Community Medicine Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0253-7184.180294

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Background: National AIDS Control Organization guidelines on enhanced syndromic case management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) require per speculum (P/S) and per vaginal (P/V) examinations for diagnosis of STIs. However, it is not known if the addition of P/S and P/V examinations to self-reported symptomatic assessment adds any value for the diagnosis of STI/RTI. Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of P/S and P/V examinations compared with self-reported symptomatic assessment in a cohort of female sex workers (FSWs). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study from August 2009 to June 2010, among 519 FSWs in Surat city, Gujarat, India. Symptomatic assessment for the presence or absence of vaginal/cervical discharge (VCD) or lower abdominal pain (LAP) was done using a self-administered questionnaire. After completion of the questionnaire, all participants underwent P/S and P/V examinations. Summary diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated. Results: Five hundred and nineteen FSWs between the ages of 18–49 years participated in the study. The median age of participants was 31 years. The prevalence of VCD and LAP syndromes based on vaginal discharge, LAP, or both was 56%, 5,–10%, respectively. The sensitivity of P/S and P/V examinations depending on symptomatic assessment ranged from 47% to 76%. The specificity ranged from 73% to 93%. The positive predictive value ranged from 25% to 83%, and the negative predictive value ranged from 56% to 98%. Conclusion: Symptomatic assessment alone is not adequate for the diagnosis of VCD and LAP syndromes and can lead to a significant number of missed cases (36%). A P/S and P/V examinations is critical for assessment of VCD and LAP syndromes and subsequent treatment.

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