Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
The Journal | Search | Ahead Of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Login    Users online: 587   Home Email this page Print this page Bookmark this page Decrease font size Default font size Increase font size


 
  Table of Contents  
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 95-96
 

Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Medicine, Kashi Medicare Hospital, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication14-Apr-2016

Correspondence Address:
Satyendra Kumar Singh
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7184.180288

Rights and Permissions

 



How to cite this article:
Singh SK, Singh S, Nath G, Srivastava MK. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2016;37:95-6

How to cite this URL:
Singh SK, Singh S, Nath G, Srivastava MK. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Sex Transm Dis [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Nov 18];37:95-6. Available from: http://www.ijstd.org/text.asp?2016/37/1/95/180288


Sir,

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) infection have more severe liver disease and higher liver-related mortality rates than do HBV-monoinfected persons.[1] The tolerability of HIV medications can be adversely affected by the presence of HBV co-infection.[2] Some but not all studies suggest that drug-induced hepatotoxicity may be more common among patients with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, particularly with the use of HIV-1 proteases inhibitors, and antituberculosis drugs.[3] Globally, there are some 370 million persons persistently infected with HBV, with 2–4 million individuals estimated to be co-infected with HIV, and chronic HBV.[4] The main aim of the study was to know the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection with HIV in our region. Patients with HIV infection, who attended our dermatology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic at a tertiary health care center for skin/STI problems, were included. Diagnosis of HIV infection was done by kits provided by the NACO. Diagnosis of HBV infection was done by detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. Infection of HCV was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Route of HIV transmission and profession of the patients were recorded by detailed history. Four hundred and twenty-two patients (258 males and 164 females) were enrolled for the study. The majority of patients were homemakers (39%) followed by laborers (23%) and truck/taxi drivers (15.8%). In majority of patients (91%), route of HIV transmission was heterosexual contact. Out of these, only 14 (3.3%) were found to be infected with HBV infection. Among HBV positive patients, 13 were males and one was female. In most of the patients (13 patients), HBV infection was transmitted through heterosexual contact. One patient acquired infection through his mother. One hundred forty-five patients were tested for HCV, but none of the patients was found to be infected with HCV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of hepatitis B in India revealed true prevalence in nontribal populations is 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2–2.7%). True prevalence among tribal populations is 15.9% (CI: 11.4–20.4%).[5] Our study showed co-infection of HBV with HIV is less, and HCV co-infection is rare in our region.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Thio CL, Seaberg EC, Skolasky R Jr., Phair J, Visscher B, Muñoz A, et al. HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, and risk of liver-related mortality in the multicenter cohort study (MACS). Lancet 2002;360:1921-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
den Brinker M, Wit FW, Wertheim-van Dillen PM, Jurriaans S, Weel J, van Leeuwen R, et al. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection and the risk for hepatotoxicity of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection. AIDS 2000;14:2895-902.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sadaphal P, Astemborski J, Graham NM, Sheely L, Bonds M, Madison A, et al. Isoniazid preventive therapy, hepatitis C virus infection, and hepatotoxicity among injection drug users infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:1687-91.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Alter MJ. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis and HIV co-infection. J Hepatol 2006;44 1 Suppl: S6-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Batham A, Narula D, Toteja T, Sreenivas V, Puliyel JM. Sytematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of hepatitis B in India. Indian Pediatr 2007;44:663-74.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
 

    

 
  Search
 
  
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (366 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2021    
    Printed20    
    Emailed3    
    PDF Downloaded43    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal