Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 128-135

Correlating CD4 count with mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-positive patients: A prospective study

1 Department of Dermatovenereology, Government Villupuram Medical College and Hospital, Villupuram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Government Villupuram Medical College and Hospital, Villupuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
C Chandrakala
Department of Dermatology, Government Villupuram Medical College and Hospital, Villupuram - 605 601, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_130_15

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Background: Mucocutaneous findings may be the presenting symptoms in HIV-afflicted individuals. A multitude of mucocutaneous diseases also occurs during the course of the ailment, with some conditions being classed as disease defining. They include infectious diseases and noninfective inflammatory and neoplastic dermatoses. With progressive fall in CD4 count, there is a change in the types of mucocutaneous lesions encountered. Aim: This study aims to statistically correlate the CD4 counts with the mucocutaneous manifestations in 100 HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 cases of HIV-positive patients with skin and mucous membrane manifestations were selected serially. A complete history was taken, clinical examination was done, and the CD4 count was noted. Patients were divided into four groups (Groups I, II, III, IV) with different ranges of CD4 values, namely, <50, 50–200, 201–500, >500, respectively. Results: The distribution of study population in CD4 ranges showed that majority (47%) of the study population had CD4 count between 201 and 500, and 29% of the study group had CD4 count between 50 and 200 cells. Almost 21% of the patients had the count > 500 cells and 3% had cell count < 50. Majority of the infectious and non-infectious dermatoses were common in the CD4 count between 201–500 (Group III) and 50–200 (Group II). In the study groups, 52 cases (52%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the remaining 48 cases (48%) were not on ART at the time of diagnosis of mucocutaneous manifestations. Out of 48 ART-naïve cases, 23 patients were screened and newly diagnosed at the outpatient department (OPD) based on the mucocutaneous manifestations. Most of the patients with multiple mucocutaneous conditions were in the CD4 count <200, whereas single manifestation was seen predominantly in CD4 count >200. Conclusion: Statistically significant association with the CD4 count was seen in herpes zoster ophthalmicus, genital wart, genital herpes, vaginal discharge syndrome, scabies, pyoderma, dermatophytosis, Hansen's disease, herpetic gingivostomatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, lichen planus, and drug reactions. These dermatoses may indicate the worsening of immune status and the need for regular monitoring with periodical CD4 counting. Occurrence of dermatoses such as photosensitive eczema, drug reaction, lichen planus, Type I lepra reaction, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus in patients on ART may be due to IRIS. To avoid the more frequent occurrence of infectious dermatoses and to reduce the development of IRIS with ART, all HIV-positive cases may be started on ART at higher CD4 count. Screening for HIV infection is suggested whenever the following conditions are seen: persistent oral candidiasis, atypical manifestations of zoster, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, herpetic gingivostomatitis and MC in adults, exaggerated IBA, and extensive seborrhoeic dermatitis.

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