Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Quality of life in HIV/AIDS
KH Basavaraj, MA Navya, R Rashmi
July-December 2010, 31(2):75-80
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74971  PMID:21716787
Given the longevity achievable with current prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for persons with HIV infection, quality of life (QOL) has emerged as a significant medical outcome measure, and its enhancement has an important goal. This review highlights the relevance and complexity of physical, psychological, and social factors as determinants of health-related quality of life in HIV-infected persons. Existing data suggest that physical manifestations, antiretroviral therapy, psychological well-being, social support systems, coping strategies, spiritual well-being, and psychiatric comorbidities are important predictors of QOL in this population. Consequently, the impact of HIV infection on the dimensions of QOL, including physical and emotional well-being, social support systems, and life roles, has emerged as a key issue for persons infected with HIV.
  12 8,325 309
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh
Saroj Tucker, Rama Krishna, Parimi Prabhakar, Swarup Panyam, Pankaj Anand
January-June 2012, 33(1):9-15
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.93787  PMID:22529447
Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.
  10 5,994 166
REVIEW ARTICLE
Pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV
Smriti Naswa, YS Marfatia
January-June 2011, 32(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.81246  PMID:21799568
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an experimental approach to HIV prevention and consists of antiretroviral drugs to be taken before potential HIV exposure in order to reduce the risk of HIV infection and continued during periods of risk. An effective PrEP could provide an additional safety net to sexually active persons at risk, when combined with other prevention strategies. Women represent nearly 60% of adults infected with HIV and PrEP can be a female-controlled prevention method for women who are unable to negotiate condom use. Two antiretroviral nucleoside analog HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs are currently under trial as PrEP drugs, namely tenofovirdisoproxilfumarate (TDF) alone and TDF in combination with emricitabine (FTC), to be taken as daily single dose oral drugs. There are 11 ongoing trials of ARV-based prevention in different at risk populations across the world. The iPrex trial showed that daily use of oral TDF/FTC by MSM resulted in 44% reduction in the incidence of HIV. This led to publication of interim guidance by CDC to use of PrEP by health providers for MSM. Few other trials are Bangkok Tenofovir Study, Partners PrEP Study, FEM-PrEP study, and VOICE (MTN-003) study. Future trials are being formulated for intermittent PrEP (iPrEP) where drugs are taken before and after sex, "stand-in dose" iPrEP, vaginal or rectal PrEP, etc. There are various issues/concerns with PrEP such as ADRs and resistance to TDF/FTC, adherence to drugs, acceptability, sexual disinhibition, use of PrEP as first line of defense for HIV without other prevention strategies, and cost. The PrEP has a potential to address unmet need in public health if delivered as a part of comprehensive toolkit of prevention services, including risk-reduction, correct and consistent use of condoms, and diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
  10 5,550 504
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cost of treatment: The single biggest obstacle to HIV/AIDS treatment adherence in lower-middle class patients in Mumbai, India
Eknath Naik, Beata Casanas, Amar Pazare, Gauri Wabale, John Sinnott, Hamisu Salihu
January-June 2009, 30(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.55476  PMID:21938110
Background: This study analyzes the social, economic and behavioral factors most frequently associated with adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) in urban India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected in a metropolitan teaching hospital in Mumbai using a cross-sectional survey design. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 152 patients. The semistructured survey included both open and closed ended questions on socio-demographic, economic and behavioral factors. Factors affecting treatment adherence were analyzed. Results: The median age of patients was 40.5 years, 73% were males and all were heterosexual. Patients had been given ART from six months to five years (median is equal to 3.5). Ninety per cent lived at home and commuted to the clinic by bus or train. Behaviorally, 37% were sexually active, but only 55% used condoms. In assessing adherence, income, education, knowledge of their drugs, transportation, side effects, cost of treatment, distance from clinic and personal clinic satisfaction were analyzed. We found that 75% of patients reported cost of HAART to be the single greatest obstacle to adherence (p less than 0.01). Additionally, those claiming knowledge of their drugs were 2.3 times more likely to be adherent (p less than 0.03), while those who abused drugs or alcohol were 53% less likely to be adherent (p less than 0.03). There was no correlation with other factors. Conclusions: Our study population was representative of the lower middle class of India. It found that an educated, employed group considered the cost of treatment to be a significant obstacle for successful therapy. Additionally, it showed a significant increase in adherence when patients had knowledge of their HAART medications. Therefore, reducing the cost of medication as well as teaching about antiretroviral medications are both likely to improve adherence.
  9 5,014 239
Pattern of sexually transmitted infections and performance of syndromic management against etiological diagnosis in patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic of a tertiary care hospital
Shilpee Choudhry, VG Ramachandran, Shukla Das, SN Bhattacharya, Narendra Singh Mogha
July-December 2010, 31(2):104-108
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74998  PMID:21716796
Background and Objectives: The availability of baseline information on the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other associated risk behaviors is essential for designing, implementing, and monitoring successful targeted interventions. Also, continuous analysis of risk assessment and prevalence-based screening studies are necessary to evaluate and monitor the performance of syndromic management. The aim of the present study was to document the pattern of common STIs and to evaluate the performance of syndromic case management against their laboratory diagnoses. Materials and Methods: Three hundred consecutive patients who attended the STI clinic of a tertiary care hospital at Delhi, with one or more of the complaints as enunciated by WHO in its syndromic approach for the diagnosis of STIs, were included as subjects. Detailed history, demographical data, and clinical features were recorded and screened for common STIs by standard microbiological methods. Results: The mean age was 24 years and most of the male patients were promiscuous and had contact with commercial sex workers (CSWs 63.9%). Majority came with the complaint of genital discharge (63 males; 54 females) followed by genital ulcer (61 males; 30 females). Genital herpes accounted for the maximum number of STI (86/300) followed by syphilis (71/300). The sensitivity of genital discharge syndrome (GDS) was high for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis (96% and 91%, respectively) while specificity was low (76% and 72%, respectively). The sensitivity of genital ulcer syndrome for herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and Treponema pallidum was 82.65% and 81.2%, respectively, while specificity reached 99% approximately. Conclusions: Viral STIs constitute the major burden of the STI clinic and enhance the susceptibility of an individual to acquire or transmit HIV through sexual contact. Syndromic algorithms have some shortcomings, and they need to be periodically reviewed and adapted to the epidemiological patterns of STI in a given setting.
  8 4,560 320
REVIEW ARTICLE
Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections
P Singhal, S Naswa, YS Marfatia
July-December 2009, 30(2):71-78
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.62761  PMID:21938124
Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus) are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal period may help in preventing their complications. Twenty five percent of women with a history of genital herpes have an outbreak at some point during the last month of pregnancy. Acyclovir is the accepted efficacious and safe therapy for HSV in pregnancy. Globally, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Neonatal transmission can occur in the absence of clinically evident lesions. HPV 6 or 11 may lead to Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP). TCA, liquid nitrogen, laser ablation or electrocautery can be used to treat external genital HPV lesions at any time during pregnancy. Cesarean section is recommended only if the lesions are obstructing the birth canal. Mother to child transmission (MTCT) in HIV accounts for 15-30% during pregnancy and delivery, and a further 5-20% of transmission occurs through breastfeeding. HBV infection during pregnancy does not alter the natural course of the disease. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, vertical transmission is approximately 90%. Pregnancy is not a contraindication for HBV vaccination. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common intrauterine infection. Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID) is the most severe form of congenital CMV infection. Treatment is supportive.
  7 5,903 628
Human papilloma virus vaccines: Current scenario
Deepika Pandhi, Sidharth Sonthalia
July-December 2011, 32(2):75-85
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.85409  PMID:22021967
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 9-13% and approximately 6 million people being infected each year. Mostly acquired during adolescence or young adulthood, HPV presents clinically as anogenital warts and may progress to precancerous lesions and cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis and anus, and oropharynx. HPV infection is considered to contribute to almost 100% cervical cancers and at least 80% of anal and 40-60% of vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers. At present, two prophylactic HPV vaccines are commercially available and both are prepared from purified L1 structural proteins. These proteins self-assemble to form virus-like particles that induce a protective immunity. Gardasil® is a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 and is recommended for use in females 9-26 years of age, for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers and intraepithelial neoplasia and condyloma acuminata and recently for vaccination in boys and men 9-26 years of age for the prevention of genital warts. Cervarix™ is a bivalent vaccine approved for the prevention of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions caused by HPV 16 and 18, in females 10-25 years. HPV vaccines are safe and efficacious against type-specific HPV-induced anogenital warts, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer. The vaccines are most effective when given before the onset of sexual activity and provide long-term protection. Effective vaccination coverage in young adolescent females will substantially reduce the incidence of these anogenital malignancy-related morbidity and mortality. There is need to generate India-specific data on HPV epidemiology and HPV vaccination efficacy as well as continue worldwide surveillance and development of newer vaccines.
  7 7,942 537
CASE REPORTS
Successful treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis with cotrimoxazole
Harsha V Patil, Virendra C Patil, Vijaya Rajmane, Vinayak Raje
January-June 2011, 32(1):44-46
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.81255  PMID:21799577
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related infection and is one of the causes of CNS mass lesions in AIDS. Toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion encountered in HIV-infected patients, and its incidence has increased markedly since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in patients with acquired immunocopromised state. We are reporting a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis presented with status epileptics and treated with cotrimoxazole. Refractory status epilepsy was controlled with intravenous levetiracetam, which has a unique drug profile.
  6 5,935 71
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Frequency of HBV, HCV and HIV infections among hospitalized injecting drug users in Kashan
M Sharif, Alireza Sherif, Mansour Sayyah
January-June 2009, 30(1):28-30
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.55477  PMID:21938111
Context: Infectious diseases including HIV and viral hepatitis constitute a major health issue, with high prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs). Aims: The present study assessed the frequency of HIV, and hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) among 200 IDUs, hospitalized between 2001 and 2006, in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan, Iran. Setting and Design: A population-based cross-sectional study in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 subjects participated in this study. Serological markers including HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies and HIV were assessed by ELISA method using Monobid kits made in US. Demographic data was collected by using a questionnaire, which was designed by a researcher. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequencies were determined by employing SPSS:PC version 15.0, and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare proportions. Results: The mean age of subjects was 36.5 ± 10.2 years. Approximately 88.5% (177 cases) were male and 11.5%. (23 cases) were female. The frequency of positive infection test results for males with respect to HBV, HCV, and HIV was 4% (8 cases), 10.5% (21 cases), and 1.5% (3 cases); and for females it was 0.5% (1 case), 1.5% (3 cases), and 0% (0 case), respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the frequency of HBV, HCV, and HIV infection in the IVD user in Kashan, Iran, is relatively high and this condition is more serious in male than female drug addicts. It is very important, especially for health providers and policy makers, to recognize the risk factors of HBV, HCV and particularly HIV infection in this area and design effective preventive programs.
  6 3,006 164
Herpes simplex virus type 2: Seroprevalence in antenatal women
Shagufta Rathore, Aditi Jamwal, Vipin Gupta
January-June 2010, 31(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.68994  PMID:21808430
Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection in pregnant females, assess the frequency of unrecognized infection and identify the demographic profile and risk factors associated with the seroprevalence. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected, asymptomatic pregnant females attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Outpatient Department for a routine antenatal check-up constituted the study group. Serum specimens were screened for HSV-2 infection by detecting IgG class antibodies against HSV-2-specific glycoprotein G-2 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: A seroprevalence of 7.5% was found in our study. Seropositivity was maximum in the age group ≥30 years (22.20%), followed by 26-30 years (9.7%), 21-25 years (2.20%) and ≤20 years (0%). HSV-2 seropositivity was found to be significantly associated with increasing age, parity, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity and history of abortions (P < 0.05). No statistically significant correlation was observed between seropositivity and other demographic variables such as place of residence, education, annual family income and occupation (P > 0.05). No statistically significant association of seropositivity with present or past history suggestive of other sexually transmitted infections was found. None of our cases tested positive for human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV). Conclusion: A relatively low prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity was found in our study, with a high frequency of unrecognized and asymptomatic infections. Our findings suggest that type-specific serotesting could be an efficient strategy to diagnose clinically asymptomatic HSV-2 infections and, therefore, to reduce the risk of HSV-2 and HIV sexual transmission by prophylactic counseling against unprotected intercourse. It may also be a useful adjunct in detecting cases who present with symptoms not directly suggestive of genital herpes.
  6 3,870 166
Prevalence and clinical presentation of Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV seropositive patients
Vasant Baradkar, M Mathur, A De, S Kumar, M Rathi
January-June 2009, 30(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.55474  PMID:21938109
A total of 573 HIV seropositive and clinically suspected cases of Cryptococcal meningitis were included in the study, from January 2006 to January 2007. CSF samples were processed by negative staining with 10% Nigrosin, cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar, biochemical tests, such as urease test and brownish growth in Niger seed agar. The prevalence of Cryptococcal meningitis was found to be 2.79%. The most common signs and symptoms were: fever (100%), headache (100%), altered sensorium (100%), and neck stiffness (90%). All the patients responded to intravenous Amphotericin B treatment.
  5 4,267 382
Profile of attendee for voluntary counseling and testing in the ICTC, Ahmedabad
Rashmi Sharma
January-June 2009, 30(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.55479  PMID:21938112
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing with pre and postcounseling aiming behavior change communication (BCC) for core/bridge population is the main element of holistic model of health care. Voluntary counseling and testing center (VCTC) remodeled as integrated counseling and testing center (ICTC)-general is the 'gateways to care'. It was hospital-based cross sectional study of 811 clients registered at VCTC of Kesar SAL Hospital from January to December 2007. These patients either came voluntarily or by referral. Anonymous and unlinked information was collected on predesigned schedule and data was analyzed to find out the seropositivity, demographic characteristics (among attendees and HIV positives), and epidemiological vulnerability of different segments of population. Among the attendees, 64% were males, 75% in the age group of 20-49 years, 80% were currently married, and 70% were literate (<10 th standard). Also, 66% clients were gainfully employed, while one-fourth were housewives; 98% lived with families, 75% were referred by doctors, and only 19% walked in directly. Dominant reason for visiting ICTC was the history/presence of high risk behavior (HRB) (34%). 35% indulged in heterosexual route; other HRB (men having sex with men or MSM and injecting drug users or IDU) were rare. There were more positive among males, 20-49 years of age group, those living singly, unmarried, divorcee, widow(er) and separated. Similarly positives were more amongst illiterates, less educated and those engaged in unskilled and semi skilled jobs. Adolescent students (>14 years) accounted for one-fifth of the total positives. Direct walk in clients were more positive compared to those referred by doctors. Those who confessed of history/presence of HRB accounted for all except 3 (85%) positives. 51% indulged in heterosexual sex followed by MSM (8%). Overall sero positivity was 4.8%; high in males, 30-49 years age, unmarried and divorcee etc. Sero prevalence decreased with improvement in education and also with improvement in job nature. It was also high in those living alone compared to those staying with their family. Such study shall in evaluating the performance of ICTC and designing the information, education, and communication (IEC) to increase the client uptake in terms of quality and quantity.
  5 4,894 290
Prevention of parent to child transmission services and interventions - coverage and utilization: A cohort analysis in Gujarat, India
Urvish Joshi, Amimuddin Kadri, Sudeshna Bhojiya
July-December 2010, 31(2):92-98
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74983  PMID:21716800
Background and Objectives: Risk of vertical transmission (largest source of HIV in children) reduces from 33% to 3% with effective prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions. NACP-III has got an objective of testing all pregnant women for earliest linkage with PMTCT. Study was carried out to find out PPTCT service coverage, dropouts, intervention efficacy with other determinants. Materials and Methods: At ICTCs, registered ANCs are counseled and tested for HIV. HIV +ve ANCs are additionally linked to services and followed-up for institutional delivery, sdNVP, nutrition and children testing. HIV +ve ANCs since 2005 subsequently delivered till June 2008 and their exposed children in Gujarat's category A, B districts constituted study cohort. Results: 259622 pregnant women registered, 72.1% were counseled pre-test, 83.4% of them tested, 74.4% received post-test counseling. 541 ANCs were detected HIV+ve. 45.5% delivered institutionally, 12.8% were unregistered. 12.1% were cesarian section and 66% delivered vaginally. 96.8% were live births, 92.13% mother-baby pair received sdNVP. 35% children could be traced till 18 months, 89% were alive. 90% were tested, 3 were found HIV +ve. Of them, none received MB Pair. Two were delivered vaginally, two received mixed feeding, two children's mothers were not linked with ART. Conclusions: PMTCT services - counseling and testing should be provided to all ANCs. EDD-based tracking, institutional deliveries, postnatal counseling to be encouraged along with complete MB pair coverage, capacity building of concerned staff regarding delivery of HIV+ve ANCs and exposed children tracking.
  5 3,030 140
An overview of post exposure prophylaxis for HIV in health care personals: Gujarat scenario
Manoj Shevkani, B Kavina, Pradeep Kumar, H Purohit, U Nihalani, Asha Shah
January-June 2011, 32(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.81247  PMID:21799569
Average risk of acquiring HIV infection after a percutaneous exposure to HIV infected blood is 0.3%. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV refers to a set of comprehensive services to prevent HIV infection in exposed individuals where the exposure can be occupational/ non occupational and a provision of short term (28 days) antiretroviral drugs are given depending on the risk assessment. It also includes counselling and relevant laboratory investigations after taking informed consent of the exposed person and source. PEP inhibits the replication of the initial inoculum of virus and thereby prevents establishment of chronic HIV infection, and is best effective when initiated within 2 hours but certainly within 72 hours. Present communication deals with the registry of 278 cases of PEP from Gujarat in terms of various determinants, their status and the outcome in terms of HIV sero positivity.
  4 4,070 217
Incidence of occupational exposures in a tertiary health care center
Amrita Shriyan, Roche R Annamma
July-December 2012, 33(2):91-97
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.102111  
Introduction: Occupational exposure to Hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a cause of concern to all health care workers (HCWs), especially those, in hospitals. Among the HCWs, nurses, interns, technicians, resident doctors and housekeeping staff have the highest incidence of occupational exposure. Aims: To analyze the cases of needle stick injuries and other exposures to patient's blood or body fluids among health care workers. Materials and Methods: A detailed account of the exposure is documented which includes incidence of needle stick injuries (NSI) and implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as per the hospital guidelines. We report a two-year continuing surveillance study where 255 health care workers (HCWs) were included. PEP was given to HCWs sustaining NSI or exposures to blood and body fluids when the source is known sero-positive or even unknown where the risk of transmission is high. Follow-up of these HCW's was done after three and six months of exposure. Results: Of the 255 HCWs, 59 sustained needle stick injuries and two were exposed to splashes. 31 of the NSI were from known sources and 28 from unknown sources. From known sources, thirteen were seropositive; seven for HIV, three for HCV and three for HBV. Nineteen of them sustained needle stick during needle re-capping, six of them during clean up, six of them while discarding into the container, 17 during administration of injection, eight of them during suturing, two occurred in restless patient, 17 during needle disposal. Conclusion: So far, no case of sero-conversion as a result of needle stick injuries was reported at our center.
  4 4,978 159
Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections
Alhusain J Alzahrani, Obeid E Obeid, Manal I Hassan, Abdalaziz A Almulhim
July-December 2010, 31(2):81-86
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74976  PMID:21716786
Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group). C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95) and 34.4% (35/102) of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102) among the control group (P < 0.01). N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%), tetracycline (50%), ampicillin (25%), amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25%) and ciprofloxacin (37.5%), while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.
  4 3,729 85
Seroprevalence of HIV infection among the patients attending various emergency departments in a tertiary care hospital
Pushpa Devi, Usha Arora, Shalini Yadav, Sita Malhotra
January-June 2010, 31(1):27-29
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.68997  PMID:21808433
Emergency departments (EDs) receive patients from every background, socioeconomic group and health status. Hence, EDs can play a critical role in offering human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and help in the national strategy of early HIV detection. The present study was conducted on 400 patients attending various EDs after taking Institutional Review Board approval. They were screened for HIV antibodies by three rapid/simple assay tests having different principles/antigens as per the NACO guidelines. Twenty-three (5.75%) of the 400 patients were HIV reactive. Fifteen (65.22%) of the 23 HIV-reactive patients were unaware of their reactive status. Majority of the HIV-reactive (65.22%) patients were from the Medicine emergency followed by Orthopaedics and Surgery (13.04%). Seven (30.43%) had history of fever of more than 1 month duration. Eight (34.78%) of them were later on clinically diagnosed as having various opportunistic infections. Thus, the study emphasizes the need for expansion of routine voluntary HIV counseling and testing to all the patients who come to the ED and practicing universal work precautions by health care workers.
  4 2,695 87
CASE REPORTS
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients: A study of two cases
Sejal Shah, Aditya Shah, Sachin Prajapati, Freny Bilimoria
January-June 2010, 31(1):42-44
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.69001  PMID:21808437
Cutaneous leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection is emerging as increasingly frequent and serious new disease. Leishmaniasis may be acquired before or after HIV infection. We describe two cases of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients. Both the patients had papulonodular lesions on upper extremities and back with low CD4 count. Slit skin smear with giemsa stain revealed Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies and skin biopsy of both the patients revealed lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with numerous intracytoplasmic LD bodies.
  3 4,092 76
Hidradenitis suppurativa in AIDS
Ravi Khambhati, Priyanka Singhal, YS Marfatia
January-June 2010, 31(1):45-46
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.69002  PMID:21808438
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a disorder of the terminal follicular epithelium in the apocrine gland-bearing skin, characterized by comedo-like follicular occlusion, chronic relapsing inflammation, mucopurulent discharge, and progressive scarring. In this study, we report a case of 35-year-old HIV-positive man with recurrent nodular skin lesions with foul smelling discharge over face, gluteal region, thighs, and axilla. This case is unique because of its association with HIV leading to atypical manifestations and therapeutic challenges.
  3 4,043 87
Genital elephantiasis as a complication of chromoblastomycosis: A diagnosis overlooked
Nidhi Sharma, YS Marfatia
January-June 2009, 30(1):43-45
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.55486  PMID:21938115
Over the decades, causes of genital elephantiasis have changed only to become elusive to etiological diagnosis. This is a case of 20 year old male who presented with genital elephantiasis occurring due to lymphatic obstruction caused by chromoblastomycosis and super added erysipelas. The diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was clenched by biopsy. We describe this case for the rarity of its occurrence.
  3 8,427 213
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Recurrent venous thromboses in HIV-2 patient
Uday Arun Phatak
January-June 2009, 30(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.55480  PMID:21938122
  3 2,548 125
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Reproductive health awareness among rural school going adolescents of Vadodara district
PV Kotecha, Sangita Patel, RK Baxi, VS Mazumdar, Shobha Misra, Ekta Modi, Mansi Diwanji
July-December 2009, 30(2):94-99
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.62765  PMID:21938128
Objectives: To identify the reproductive health issues associated with adolescence and their readiness to avail services like Adolescent Friendly Clinic (AFC) among rural school going children. Materials and Methods: A quantitative survey was carried out using a self-administered structured questionnaire among 768 (428 boys and 340 girls) students from 15 schools by systematic random sampling from schools (3 schools from 5 talukas). Focus group discussions, 5 each with adolescent boys and girls and teachers were held. Results and Discussion: Only 31% of the boys and 33% of the girls mentioned that they had heard about contraception. More than half of the adolescent boys and girls knew correctly about various modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. A large proportion of boys and girls have mentioned changes in the opposite sex such as increase in height, change in voice, breast development, and growth of facial hair, growth of hair in private parts, onset of menstruation in girls, etc. Nearly 70% of adolescents were ready to use AFC. Teachers perceived that adolescents become curious about the changes taking place in them, but they lack information and opportunities for open-discussions to get answers to their queries related to reproductive health. They are willing to take help from teachers but teachers are not equipped with knowledge nor are they comfortable discussing these issues with their students. Recommendations: Information on the human reproductive system and related issues on reproductive health need special attention. Teachers' sensitization to "adolescent health care" is required.
  3 3,666 191
Clinico-epidemiological profile of HIV/TB coinfected patients in Vadodara, Gujarat
Ragini Ghiya, Eknath Naik, Beata Casanas, Ricardo Izurieta, Yogesh Marfatia
January-June 2009, 30(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.55472  PMID:21938107
Introduction: The HIV epidemic has posed major, almost insurmountable, challenges to tuberculosis control efforts across the world. This study analyzes the prevalence and disease profile of HIV/AIDS coinfection in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the HIV Referral Clinic at Vadodara, India. Using convenience sampling method, 246 HIV-positive patients coinfected with tuberculosis were enrolled. A detailed history of every case was taken followed by a thorough physical examination. Baseline and follow up laboratory and radiological investigations were carried out as appropriately warranted. Results: Out of 500 HIV positive patients who presented to the clinic during the study period, 246 (49.2%) were coinfected with tuberculosis. Out of 246 coinfected cases, 35(14.2%) presented with demonstrable and documented tuberculosis whereas in 211(85.8%) cases, tuberculosis was extemporaneously detected by actively screening the patients. Sixty nine percent of patients were males, while 10.5% of cases were below fifteen years of age. The majority (68%) of patients had manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis; but pulmonary tuberculosis, which is a more common presentation in HIV-negative cases, was present in only fifty five percent of this segment of the population. Abdominal tuberculosis was the most common site (74%) amongst extrapulmonary tuberculosis involvement, followed by clinically palpable lymph nodes (22%) and pleural effusion (17%). Conclusion: The prevalence of tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients in this study (49%) was substantially higher than that reported in previous studies. However, this could be attributed to a selection and/or a diagnosis bias. This study used abdominal ultrasound for the diagnosis of tuberculosis which might have obviously increased the prevalence. Moreover, these cases were not confirmed by biopsy or other definitive TB diagnostic methods.
  3 6,017 579
Tenofovir-associated renal dysfunction in clinical practice: An observational cohort from western India
Ketan K Patel, Atul K Patel, Rajiv R Ranjan, Apurva R Patel, Jagdish K Patel
January-June 2010, 31(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.68998  PMID:21808434
Background: Tenofovir (TDF) is preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection because of its potency and safety. Renal toxicity with TDF use is low and comparable with other NRTI in clinical trials, but there are many case studies and small case series of renal dysfunction with TDF. Materials and Methods: This is an observational longitudinal cohort of patients started on a TDF-based regimen from January 2007 to April 2010. Patients were evaluated at baseline and with every follow-up visit for serum creatinine and calculated creatinine clearance (Cockroft-Gault formula). In addition to this, the patients were also subjected to test for serum potassium, phosphorous and urine examinations as and when indicated. Renal dysfunction was defined as rise in serum creatinine to more than the upper level of normal (>1.2 mg%). Results: Of 1,271 patients started on a TDF-containing antiretroviral treatment (ART) 83 (6.53%) developed renal dysfunction, of which 79 had impaired serum creatinine and five had Fanconi's syndrome. Renal dysfunction was more common with boosted a protease inhibitor (PI) (9.44%)-based regimen as compared to a non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) (5.01%)-based regimen (P = 0.003). The mean decline in creatinine clearance from baseline was 22.27 ml/min. The median time to develop renal dysfunction was 154 (15-935) days. Serum creatinine returned to normal in all the patients after stopping TDF. Five patients presented with features suggestive of Fanconi's syndrome without alteration in serum creatinine. Conclusion: TDF-based treatment is associated with mild but reversible renal dysfunction. Patients receiving PI/r are at a higher risk of renal dysfunction compared to those receiving NNRTI-based ART. Clinicians should be adviced to have intensive renal monitoring, including creatinine clearance, urine examination, K+ and phosphate levels at baseline and during treatment with TDF.
  3 4,350 96
REVIEW ARTICLES
Prostitution in India and its role in the spread of HIV infection
Devinder Mohan Thappa, Nidhi Singh, Sowmya Kaimal
July-December 2007, 28(2):69-75
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.39007  
Prostitution describes sexual intercourse in exchange for remuneration. The legal status of prostitution varies in different countries, from punishable by death to complete legality. The great degree of social stigma associated with prostitution, of both buyers and sellers, has lead to terminology such as 'commercial sex trade', 'commercial sex worker' (CSW), female sex worker (FSW) or sex trade worker. Organisers of prostitution are typically known as pimps (if male) and madams (if female). Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution, often confined to special red-light districts in big cities. The devadasi (handmaiden of god) system of dedicating unmarried young girls to gods in Hindu temples, which often made them objects of sexual pleasure of temple priests and pilgrims, was an established custom in India by 300 AD. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi enter the sex work at an early age. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Truck drivers engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners in rural India could be major vectors of HIV transmission. The commercial sex industry is a multibillion dollar Indian and global market which now includes strip clubs, massage brothels, phone sex, adult and child pornography, street brothel, and escort prostitution. So long as men want to buy sex, prostitution is assumed to be inevitable.
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