Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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   2010| July-December  | Volume 31 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 7, 2011

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Quality of life in HIV/AIDS
KH Basavaraj, MA Navya, R Rashmi
July-December 2010, 31(2):75-80
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74971  PMID:21716787
Given the longevity achievable with current prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for persons with HIV infection, quality of life (QOL) has emerged as a significant medical outcome measure, and its enhancement has an important goal. This review highlights the relevance and complexity of physical, psychological, and social factors as determinants of health-related quality of life in HIV-infected persons. Existing data suggest that physical manifestations, antiretroviral therapy, psychological well-being, social support systems, coping strategies, spiritual well-being, and psychiatric comorbidities are important predictors of QOL in this population. Consequently, the impact of HIV infection on the dimensions of QOL, including physical and emotional well-being, social support systems, and life roles, has emerged as a key issue for persons infected with HIV.
  12 9,825 330
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pattern of sexually transmitted infections and performance of syndromic management against etiological diagnosis in patients attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic of a tertiary care hospital
Shilpee Choudhry, VG Ramachandran, Shukla Das, SN Bhattacharya, Narendra Singh Mogha
July-December 2010, 31(2):104-108
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74998  PMID:21716796
Background and Objectives: The availability of baseline information on the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other associated risk behaviors is essential for designing, implementing, and monitoring successful targeted interventions. Also, continuous analysis of risk assessment and prevalence-based screening studies are necessary to evaluate and monitor the performance of syndromic management. The aim of the present study was to document the pattern of common STIs and to evaluate the performance of syndromic case management against their laboratory diagnoses. Materials and Methods: Three hundred consecutive patients who attended the STI clinic of a tertiary care hospital at Delhi, with one or more of the complaints as enunciated by WHO in its syndromic approach for the diagnosis of STIs, were included as subjects. Detailed history, demographical data, and clinical features were recorded and screened for common STIs by standard microbiological methods. Results: The mean age was 24 years and most of the male patients were promiscuous and had contact with commercial sex workers (CSWs 63.9%). Majority came with the complaint of genital discharge (63 males; 54 females) followed by genital ulcer (61 males; 30 females). Genital herpes accounted for the maximum number of STI (86/300) followed by syphilis (71/300). The sensitivity of genital discharge syndrome (GDS) was high for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis (96% and 91%, respectively) while specificity was low (76% and 72%, respectively). The sensitivity of genital ulcer syndrome for herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and Treponema pallidum was 82.65% and 81.2%, respectively, while specificity reached 99% approximately. Conclusions: Viral STIs constitute the major burden of the STI clinic and enhance the susceptibility of an individual to acquire or transmit HIV through sexual contact. Syndromic algorithms have some shortcomings, and they need to be periodically reviewed and adapted to the epidemiological patterns of STI in a given setting.
  8 5,352 346
Prevention of parent to child transmission services and interventions - coverage and utilization: A cohort analysis in Gujarat, India
Urvish Joshi, Amimuddin Kadri, Sudeshna Bhojiya
July-December 2010, 31(2):92-98
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74983  PMID:21716800
Background and Objectives: Risk of vertical transmission (largest source of HIV in children) reduces from 33% to 3% with effective prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions. NACP-III has got an objective of testing all pregnant women for earliest linkage with PMTCT. Study was carried out to find out PPTCT service coverage, dropouts, intervention efficacy with other determinants. Materials and Methods: At ICTCs, registered ANCs are counseled and tested for HIV. HIV +ve ANCs are additionally linked to services and followed-up for institutional delivery, sdNVP, nutrition and children testing. HIV +ve ANCs since 2005 subsequently delivered till June 2008 and their exposed children in Gujarat's category A, B districts constituted study cohort. Results: 259622 pregnant women registered, 72.1% were counseled pre-test, 83.4% of them tested, 74.4% received post-test counseling. 541 ANCs were detected HIV+ve. 45.5% delivered institutionally, 12.8% were unregistered. 12.1% were cesarian section and 66% delivered vaginally. 96.8% were live births, 92.13% mother-baby pair received sdNVP. 35% children could be traced till 18 months, 89% were alive. 90% were tested, 3 were found HIV +ve. Of them, none received MB Pair. Two were delivered vaginally, two received mixed feeding, two children's mothers were not linked with ART. Conclusions: PMTCT services - counseling and testing should be provided to all ANCs. EDD-based tracking, institutional deliveries, postnatal counseling to be encouraged along with complete MB pair coverage, capacity building of concerned staff regarding delivery of HIV+ve ANCs and exposed children tracking.
  5 3,855 146
Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections
Alhusain J Alzahrani, Obeid E Obeid, Manal I Hassan, Abdalaziz A Almulhim
July-December 2010, 31(2):81-86
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74976  PMID:21716786
Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group). C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95) and 34.4% (35/102) of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102) among the control group (P < 0.01). N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%), tetracycline (50%), ampicillin (25%), amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25%) and ciprofloxacin (37.5%), while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.
  4 4,566 90
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus infection among HIV infected patients in Mumbai
Sandhya Sawant, Sachee Agrawal, Jayanthi Shastri
July-December 2010, 31(2):126-126
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75025  PMID:21716799
  3 5,705 89
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Plasma folate studies in HIV-positive patients at the Lagos university teaching hospital, Nigeria
Akanmu Alani, Osunkalu Vincent, Adediran Adewumi, Adeyemo Titilope, Ernest Onogu, Akinde Ralph, Coker Hab
July-December 2010, 31(2):99-103
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74995  PMID:21716795
Introduction: In various studies globally, the prevalence of anemia in persons with HIV infection range from 10 to 20% at initial presentation, and anemia is diagnosed in 70 to 80% of these patients over the course of HIV disease. The etiology of anemia in this group of patients has not been fully established, thus a need to evaluate the role of plasma folate as a possible etiological factor. Objective: This study was set to determine plasma folate levels in newly diagnosed, treatment nave, HIV-positive patients, and relate this to other hematological changes. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 participants were recruited for this study, of which 100 were HIV positive, treatment naive patients who were recruited at the point of registration and 100 were HIV-negative subjects (controls). 5 ml of venous blood was collected and plasma extracted for folic acid estimation by HPLC. A full blood count, CD4 and Viral load were estimated. Results: Mean ages for control and study group were 38 ± 2.3 and 32 ± 1.7 years, respectively. Mean plasma folate concentration among the study group (5.04 μg/l) was significantly lower than that for the control group (15.89 μg/l; P = 0.0002). Prevalence of anemia among the study group was 72% (144 of 200), with a mean hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of 9.5 g/dl compared with mean Hb of 13.0 g/dl among the control group (P = 0.002). Plasma folate correlated positively with CD4 cell count (r = 0.304, P<0.05) and inversely with the viral load (r = -0.566; P<0.05). Conclusion: Plasma folate level is a predictor of anemia in early HIV infections.
  3 3,131 53
CASE REPORTS
Extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gingiva in an HIV seropositive patient
Karthikeya Patil, VG Mahima, HS Srikanth
July-December 2010, 31(2):112-115
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75008  PMID:21716790
Among the myriad manifestations of HIV, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are considered as the second most common malignancies after Kaposi's sarcoma. HIV-associated NHLs are extranodal and have a predilection for sites in the head and neck region in 50-60% of cases. Of all the extranodal NHLs, oral cavity constitutes only 25%. It is now considered that oral NHL serves as the first indicator of HIV infection.
  2 3,557 72
Amoebic ulcer of the male genitala: A rare case report
Indrani Mohanty, Prasenjeet Mohanty, Satyadarshi Patnaik, Pritilata Panda
July-December 2010, 31(2):116-117
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75009  PMID:21716788
Amoebic ulcer of the penis is a very rare clinical entity. We report a case of amoebic ulcer of the glans penis in a 47-year-old male homosexual, symptomatic with severe pain and foul-smelling hemopurulent discharge of acute onset. He had received systemic antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and azithromycin prior to presentation with no improvement. Diagnosis was confirmed by wet mount microscopic examination of the discharge. The patient responded well to a course of metronidazole.
  2 13,948 73
REVIEW ARTICLES
Circumcision
Poonam Puri, Joginder Kumar, V Ramesh
July-December 2010, 31(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74967  PMID:21716785
Circumcision is one of the oldest and the most controversial surgical procedures performed worldwide and is almost universal among Muslim and Jewish men. Most medical institutions in various countries agree that although there may be health benefits, there is no medical justification for routine circumcision in neonates or children. It should be performed only for established medical reasons and should not be universally recommended. There are modern techniques that provide safer, simpler, quicker, and cheaper alternatives to the traditional means of circumcision with good functional and cosmetic results. Female genital mutilation (FGM) includes procedure that alters or injures female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. Various degrees of FGM are prevalent, the most mutilating one being infibulation. There are numerous gynecologic and obstetrical complications with infibulation. FGM also plays a significant role in facilitating the transmission of HIV infection through numerous mechanisms. Health care providers have an important role to play in the eradication of this practice. Increased professional and public awareness about such a practice is required.
  2 7,704 282
CASE REPORTS
Luetic aortopathy: Revisited
Bhushan Sevakram Madke, Nandkishor Babulal Agrawal, Pradeep Vaideeswar, Mayuresh Pradhan, Amey Vijay Rojekar, Uday Sharadchandra Khopkar
July-December 2010, 31(2):118-121
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75011  PMID:21716797
We report a case of 38-year-old male, who presented with a large pulsatile swelling on the left side of the anterior chest wall of 4 months' duration with a gradual increase in size. He gave history of sexual promiscuity in the form of unprotected sexual intercourse prior to his marriage in his early 20s. He also gave a history of ulceration on coronal sulcus of glans penis 20 years back with painless right inguinal mass. His blood serology was strongly positive for syphilis and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); however, serology for retroviral infection was negative. Computed tomography-angiography confirmed the pulsatile swelling as aneurysm of the arch of and ascending aorta. In view of the history, positive serology, and imaging studies, we concluded the aortic aneurysm to be of syphilitic origin. We report this case due to its extreme rarity in the present antibiotic era.
  1 5,381 66
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a unique clinical scenario
G Anubhav, NK Kamath
July-December 2010, 31(2):128-129
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75031  PMID:21716794
  1 1,942 63
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Characterization of patients with multiple sexually transmitted infections: A hospital-based survey
Shilpee Choudhry, VG Ramachandran, Shukla Das, SN Bhattacharya, Narendra Singh Mogha
July-December 2010, 31(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.74978  PMID:21716792
Background: Many studies have examined the inter-relationship between different STI. There are, however, a few data on patients presenting with more than one concurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The aim of the study was to determine the burden of patients with more than one concurrent STI and to characterize factors associated with such infections. Materials and Methods: Two hundred seventy five patients with one or more of the complaints, as enunciated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in its syndromic approach for the diagnosis of STI, were included as subjects. Detailed history, demographical data, and clinical features were recorded. All the patients were screened for common STIs. Multivariate analysis was performed taking all significant risk factor obtained from univariate analysis. Results: A total of 102 (37%) patients were identified as having multiple STIs amongst whom 72% (73/102) were male, 70% were married, and except one none reported regular use of condom The age of first sexual exposure was 13-17 years, 31.3% had more than three sexual partners in the past 6 months, and 76.4% had contact with commercial sex workers (CSWs). Multivariate analysis revealed statistical significance in relation to marital status, number of sexual partners exposed in the past 6 months, age of first sexual exposure, and age of patient at the time of presentation. Syphilis (48%) was the most common infection associated with multiple STI followed by HIV (45%) and HSV-2 (39.2%). None of the patients with multiple infections were detected and managed accurately by syndromic approach. Conclusion: Pattern of concurrent multiple STIs and the clinical severity of such multiple infections may serve as an indicator of the type of host-pathogen interaction determining the outcome of infection. When patient had multiple STIs, syndromic approach was not axiomatic and thus underscores the need for laboratory diagnosis.
  1 3,364 164
ABSTRACTS
Abstracts from global literature
Pankil Patel, Ravi Khambhati, YS Marfatia
July-December 2010, 31(2):122-124
  - 1,896 79
CASE REPORTS
Unusual cause of weight loss in a patient with HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfection
A Gogia, A Kakar
July-December 2010, 31(2):109-111
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75004  PMID:21716798
Recombinant interferon α (IFN α), alone or in combination, is used extensively in the treatment of hepatitis C infection. IFN therapy is not free of side-effects and autoimmune thyroiditis is one of its rare side-effects. We present here a case of a patient with hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on interferon therapy who presented with significant weight loss. He was found to have IFN-related autoimmune thyrotoxicosis and responded to antithyroid drugs and propanolol. Therefore, this case highlights that IFN-induced thyroiditis is an unusual side-effect and that during treatment, a thyroid-stimulating hormone assay should be performed at regular intervals (every 8-12 weeks).
  - 2,402 54
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Association between pelvic inflammatory disease and abortions
Sangita V Patel, Rajendra K Baxi, Prakash V Kotecha, Vihang S Mazumdar, Kedar G Mehta, Mansi Diwanji
July-December 2010, 31(2):127-128
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75030  PMID:21716793
  - 2,718 53
Sexual health needs of people living with HIV in a rural area of central India
Quazi Syed Zahiruddin, AM Gaidhane, Lalit Waghmare, Nazli Khatib, Shilpa Gaidhane, Tripti Srivatsava, SP Zodpey
July-December 2010, 31(2):125-125
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75021  PMID:21716789
  - 1,967 83
PHOTO QUIZ
What is your diagnosis?
Priyanka Singhal, Rahul Dixit, Shivani Patel, YS Marfatia
July-December 2010, 31(2):130-131
DOI:10.4103/0253-7184.75032  PMID:21716791
  - 3,829 100
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