Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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Year : 2009  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-18

Reproductive tract infections in HIV positive women: A case control study

Department of Skin and VD, Medical College and SSG Hospital, Vadodara, India

Correspondence Address:
Y S Marfatia
Department of Skin and VD, Baroda Medical College, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0253-7184.55473

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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the coexistence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) is not surprising given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of RTIs among infected and noninfected women. Materials and Methods: A case control study of 83 HIV positive women, tested by two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a matched control of 87 HIV negative women were screened for RTIs. They were submitted to gynecological examination and cervical cytology. Results: The mean age for HIV positive women was 30 years and that for HIV negative women was 27 years. 18% HIV positive women had menstrual irregularities compared to 6% in seronegative group ( P = 0.024). Vaginal infections including sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were found in 47 (57%) HIV positive women and 30 (34%) HIV negative women ( P = 0.0037). Vaginal candidiasis was the most common infection (34%) in HIV positive women, followed by trichomoniasis (12%). Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection was seen in nine HIV positive women versus none in HIV negative women. Cervical cytology showed inflammation in 53 (64%) HIV positive women compared to 27 (31%) HIV negative women ( P = 0.000023). Genital neoplasia, including carcinoma in situ was observed in 2 (2.5%) HIV positive women and in none of the HIV negative women. Conclusion: It is seen that reproductive tract morbidities are common in HIV positive women. So it is imperative that HIV positive women have a complete gynecological evaluation including a Papanicolaou (PAP) smear with aggressive screening of STIs.

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