Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 64-66

Genital tract infection of women in Southern Orissa with special reference to pelvic inflammatory disease

1 Department of Microbiology, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Microbiology, MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, Orissa, India

Date of Web Publication4-Jun-2013

Correspondence Address:
Sarita Mohapatra
E-36, Ansari Nagar (West), AIIMS Residential Campus, New Delhi - 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0253-7184.112971

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How to cite this article:
Mohapatra S, Panda P, Parida B. Genital tract infection of women in Southern Orissa with special reference to pelvic inflammatory disease. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2013;34:64-6

How to cite this URL:
Mohapatra S, Panda P, Parida B. Genital tract infection of women in Southern Orissa with special reference to pelvic inflammatory disease. Indian J Sex Transm Dis [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 May 6];34:64-6. Available from:


Genital tract infection (GTI) includes vulvitis, vaginitis, and cervicitis, which subsequently ascends to the upper genital tract causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). [1] Important causative organisms include Chlamydia trachomatis and  Neisseria More Details gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and  Escherichia More Details coli.[2] Ninety sexually active females (20-45 yr age group) with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain, dyspareunia, irregular vaginal bleeding were taken as cases and 30 females without such complaints were included as controls. Five endocervical swabs were collected from each patient and processed for direct microscopic examination and culture. Sample was examined for curdy discharge, pH, and amine test with 10% KOH. Swab in the tube containing normal saline was checked for motile trophozoites of Trichomonas vaginalis under the low power microscope. Gram staining was done and examined for presence of clue cell. Culture of each specimen was done for aerobic bacterial isolation, Mycoplasma spp., and budding yeast cell. Isolated Mycoplasma strains on pleuropneumonia-like organism (PPLO) agar were identified on the basis of typical colonial morphology and further confirmation was done by Diene's stain and Giemsa stain. Serum from 60 cases (clinically diagnosed as PID) was tested for C. trachomatis IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (NovaTec).

Maximum number of cases (48/90) of GTI was between 20-30 yrs age group [Table 1]. Majority of cases were married (housewives) followed by laborers. Intrauterine devices (IUD) were the predominant contraceptive method practised by the study groups. Vaginal discharge was the single most common presentation in these patients (25%). However, most of the patients had pruritus, dysuria, low backache, and dyspareunia along with vaginal discharge. Trophozoites of T. vaginalis were identified in wet mount preparation in three (3.3%) cases out of total 90. Mycoplasma spp. found to be the most common pathogen (17.8%) on culture isolation, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.6%) in the cases [Table 2]. In control group, S. epidermidis was the most commonly isolated bacteria. Culture isolation of different Mycoplasma spp. in cases revealed U. urealyticum was the commonest isolate in 12 (13.2%), followed by M. hominis four (4.4%). However, U. urealyticum was isolated in two (6.6%) from the controls. Sixteen (26.6%) out of 60 PID cases were seropositive for C. trachomatis by IgM ELISA test. No seropositive result was obtained from the 20 controls. So, out of the total 60 PID cases, Mycoplasma spp. was found in 18.3% of cases and C. trachomatis was found in 26.6%, and both were found in 6.6%. Total 10 (11.1%) cases were found culture positive in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) agar out of which Candida albicans is the predominant followed by C. tropicalis.
Table 1: Demographic profile of the study group

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Table 2: Culture isolation of different microbes

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Microbial flora of the female genital tract presents as an extensive and diversified spectrum of pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms. While gonorrhea and Chlamydia have long been associated with acute PID, bacterial vaginosis caused by different pathogens has emerged as another risk factor for upper genital tract infection. [3],[4] In this study, the association of selected microbes in the causation of lower GTI (vaginitis/cervicitis) and upper genital tract infection (PID) has been studied. Use of (IUD) traditionally believed to confer an elevated risk of PID due to bacterial contamination at the time of insertion. [5] In the present study, more than 49% of total patients used intrauterine devices as contraceptive measures.

Mycoplasma spp. has been suggested as a cause of wide range of diseases of the female genital tract. [4] The association of Mycoplasma spp. with GTI cases was found to be significant (P < 0.05) in our study. Although, 3.3% incidence of T. vaginalis was observed by microscopy in this study, other diagnostic modalities like culture and molecular methods could not be carried out for technical reasons. Despite limitations, the multifactorial etiology is well-established in patients with PID. In our study, both Mycoplasma spp. and C. trachomatis were found in patients with PID. However, the antibiotics used for genital chlamydial infection are less effective against Mycoplasma spp. Diagnostic laboratories where the facility for culture of etiological agents such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia are unavailable, an empirical treatment for acute PID must include agents effective against these organisms.

   References Top

1.Dixon-Muller R, Wasserheit J. The culture of silence: Reproductive tract infection among women in the third World. New York: International Women's Health Coalition (Reports); 1991.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Sweet RL. Sexually transmitted diseases. Pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in women. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1987;1:199-215.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Goel V, Bhalla P, Sharma A, Mala YM. Lower genital tract infection in HIV seropositive women in India. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2011;32:103-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Zhu C, Liu J, Ling Y, Dong C, Wu T, Yu X, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in Chinese women with genital infectious diseases. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2012;78:406-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
5.Beigi RH, Wiesenfeld HC. Pelvic inflammatory disease: New diagnostic criteria and treatment. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2003;30:777-93.  Back to cited text no. 5


  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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