Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 42  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

Male circumcision and Sexually transmitted Infections – An update

1 Consultant Dermatologist, SBKS Medical Institute and Research Centre, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Skin and VD, SBKS Medical Institute and Research Centre, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Skin and VD, Baroda Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yogesh S Marfatia
Department of Skin and VD, SBKS Medical Institute and Research Centre, Pipariya, Waghodia, Vadodara - 391 760, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijstd.ijstd_20_21

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Role of male circumcision (MC) as a tool to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was assessed. An attempt was made to search articles related to association between MC and STIs/HIV. A thorough search was carried out to find out quality articles published in indexed specialty journals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization (WHO) sites were also referred. Warm and moist environment of area under foreskin facilitates some pathogens to persist and replicate. Further, the thinness of foreskin predisposes it to minor trauma and abrasions that facilitate the entry of pathogens. MC reduces HIV infection risk by 50%–60% over time and reduces the risk of men acquiring herpes simplex virus-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV) that can cause penile and other anogenital cancers, by 30%. There is no significant reduction in risk of acquiring syphilis, but reduced risk of acquisition of Haemophilus ducreyi is reported. MC is reported to be beneficial in conditions such as traumatic injury, Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans, refractory balanoposthitis, and chronic, recurrent urinary tract infections. MC also reduces the chances of penile carcinoma by facilitating improved penile hygiene, lowering HPV/HIV transmission rates, and reducing chronic inflammatory conditions such as phimosis and balanitis. MC has been recommended by the WHO and UNAIDS in 2007 as an additional HIV prevention intervention in settings of high HIV prevalence. MC is an important adjunct to safe sex education, condom use, and vaccination (HPV) in reducing the global burden of HIV/STIs-related morbidity and mortality.

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