Indian J Sex Transm Dis Indian J Sex Transm Dis
Official Publication of the Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Indian J Sex Transm Dis
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 174-178

Etiology of cervicitis: Are there new agents in play?

Department of Dermatology and STD, Apex Regional STD Centre, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aradhana Bhargava
Department of Dermatology and STD, Apex Regional STD Centre,VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi - 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijstd.ijstd_75_21

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Background: Considering the changing causative and resistance pattern of agents implicated in sexually transmitted infections (STIs), etiological diagnosis is imperative, especially in countries practicing syndromic management. This study was designed to identify etiological agents associated with cervicitis and to analyze their association with clinical and behavioral profile. Materials and Methods: Female STI clinic attendees presenting with cervico-vaginal discharge were examined for the presence of cervicitis. Endocervical swabs were collected for gram staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for various bacterial and viral STI agents in patients presenting with cervical discharge. A vaginal swab was also evaluated for bacterial vaginosis by Nugent's criteria. Results: Of 64 patients with vaginal discharge, 26.6% and 12.5% patients complained of genital itching and lower abdominal pain, respectively. Mean of 36.6 pus cells/hpf were observed, appreciably greater number in patients with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections (P = 0.0063 and 0.0032, respectively). Pus cells were high (mean 68 pus cells/hpf) in patients with Ureaplasma urealyticum, though this may be attributed to coexisting N. gonorrhoeae. Agents isolated from endocervix were N. gonorrhoeae, 17 (26.6%), Trichomonas vaginalis, 4 (6.3%), HSV1 and C. trachomatis, 1 each (1.6%), HSV2, 9 (14.1%), U. urealyticum 5 (7.8%), Ureaplasma parvum 26 (40.6%), Mycoplasma genitalium (0%), and Mycoplasma hominis 11 (17.2%). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 14 (21.9%) patients. Multiple agents were isolated in 10 (two), 6 (three), 6 (four), and 1 (five) patients. Isolation of M. hominis and U. parvum was significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). Nonusage of condoms and mental stress predisposed to cervicitis. Conclusion: We concluded that there are changing etiological patterns of cervicitis. There is need to use tests that detect wider array of organisms, and can replace standard culture methods with molecular assays ,to increase the ability to diagnose more number of organisms implicated in cervicitis.

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